term vegetation refers to the plant cover of an area and it
is broader than the term flora. The vegetation on Mt Parnitha
is the combined result of many factors, such as flora, general
climate, topography, geological substrates, soil and also human
impact, which is evident throughout history.
vegetation varies according to the altitude. Three vegetation
zones can be easily identified on Parnitha. The first vegetation
zone extends from 300-800m and is dominated by pine forests,
macchie and phrygana. Above 800m, pines create a mixed forest
with firs. The second vegetation zone extends from 900-1.400m
and is dominated by firforest, brushwood and grasslands. The
third vegetation zone is observed on the highest mountain summits.
It is vestigial and consists of spiny, cushion-like bushes.
It probably originated from the reduction of the firforest in
these areas and as such is not an authentic subalpine zone.
the riverbanks a riverine vegetation occurs and on the mountain's
steep, rocky slopes, numerous chasmophytes are found. In some
areas, deciduous oaks grow. Also, the presence of several plateaus
and meadows on the mountain is very important for the wildlife's
survival and especially the population of the red deer.
several other forest species (such
as Cedrus libani – cedar of Lebanon,
Quercus frainetto – broadleaved oak, Q. petraea
– oak, Ulmus minor – elm, Populus alba –
white poplar, Pinus pinea – umbrella pine etc.)
are planted either along roadsides or at recreation areas.
is not easy to distinguish basic vegetation
formations and its
Intermediate formations are created according to the grand relief,
exposure, human impact (grazing, logging etc.) natural disasters
(fires, insect epidemics etc.), geological substrates, erosion,
water flow etc.