Greek version
Ancient monuments Monasteries-Chapels Tatoi Palace


Ancient fortresses are the most important monuments of Parnitha. After the Persian Wars, the Athenians built two fortresses at West Parnitha, called Panaktos and Drymos.

Loimiko TowerThat was the beginning of a gradual fortification of Parnitha by the Athenians, with simple entrenchments, used as observatories or fryktories (i.e., places of transmitting signals by torches). They could not intercept the march of numerous enemy troops, but they could harass its rear and stop its communication. They were usually built on mountain summits, in order to control road crossings, but they were also useful as base and as locations of training and servicing of recruited soldiers.

Parnitha's "fortresses" were built in various historical times and never formed a united defense line. The most important of them, some of which still exist as ruins, are: Fyli, Panaktos, Eleftherai, Kastraki, Kororemi, Korynos, Vilatouri, Pyrgari, Loimiko, Katsimidi, Dekeleia, Leipsydrio, Falemi, etc.

Fyli's CastleThe most famous and most beautiful fortress is "Fyli's Castle", situated at West Parnitha, at an altitude of 687m. North of this castle, at "Vouno Fylis" location, there was a much older castle, remnants of which are still visible. That was the location of the Ancient town of Fyli, the inhabitants of which, belonged to Oiniida Tribe and wore white clothes, according to Aristophanes. The Athenians used this old castle to resist the tyrant Peisistratus during the 6th century B.C. Also, in 403 B.C., Thrasyvoulos conquered the castle with 70 soldiers and brought down the 30 tyrant's regime in Athens. The unsuitable position of that fortress caused its abandonment and during the 4th century B.C. the new castle seen today was built, in a more appropriate position, with excellent view. South-East of the new castle, along the road leading to Athens, traces of wheels of coaches can still be seen on the rocks.

Another important ancient monument is the Cave of Panas, where the God Panas and the Nymphs were worshiped. Numerous devotional ceramics have been found inside this cave, which lies in Fyli area.

The tomb of the ancient tragic poet Sophocles has also been found in Varympopi area and it is expected to be declared as archaeological site, in order to be visited by the public. The area of the tomb has already been fenced and cleared with the cooperation of the Archaeological Service and the Forest Service of Parnitha.



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  Forest Service of Parnitha
  Thrakomakedonon Ave.    142, Acharnes. GR13601
   Athens, Greece.

Tel.: 0030 210 2434061-3 fax.: 0030 210 2434064



  Eirini Aplada, Biologist-M.Sc. Environmental Biology and Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystem Management