fortresses are the most important monuments of Parnitha. After
the Persian Wars, the Athenians built two fortresses at West
Parnitha, called Panaktos and Drymos.
was the beginning of a gradual fortification of Parnitha by
the Athenians, with simple entrenchments, used as observatories
or fryktories (i.e., places of transmitting signals by torches).
They could not intercept the march of numerous enemy troops,
but they could harass its rear and stop its communication. They
were usually built on mountain summits, in order to control
road crossings, but they were also useful as base and as locations
of training and servicing of recruited soldiers.
"fortresses" were built in various historical times
and never formed a united defense line. The most important of
them, some of which still exist as ruins, are: Fyli, Panaktos,
Eleftherai, Kastraki, Kororemi, Korynos, Vilatouri, Pyrgari,
Loimiko, Katsimidi, Dekeleia, Leipsydrio, Falemi, etc.
most famous and most beautiful fortress is "Fyli's
Castle", situated at West Parnitha, at an altitude of 687m.
North of this castle, at "Vouno Fylis" location, there
was a much older castle, remnants of which are still visible.
That was the location of the Ancient town of Fyli, the inhabitants
of which, belonged to Oiniida Tribe and wore white clothes,
according to Aristophanes. The Athenians used this old castle
to resist the tyrant Peisistratus during the 6th century B.C.
Also, in 403 B.C., Thrasyvoulos conquered the castle with 70
soldiers and brought down the 30 tyrant's regime in Athens.
The unsuitable position of that fortress caused its abandonment
and during the 4th century B.C. the new castle seen today was
built, in a more appropriate position, with excellent view.
South-East of the new castle, along the road leading to Athens,
traces of wheels of coaches can still be seen on the rocks.
important ancient monument is the Cave of Panas, where the God
Panas and the Nymphs were worshiped. Numerous devotional ceramics
have been found inside this cave, which lies in Fyli area.
tomb of the ancient tragic poet Sophocles has also been found
in Varympopi area and it is expected to be declared as archaeological
site, in order to be visited by the public. The area of the
tomb has already been fenced and cleared with the cooperation
of the Archaeological Service and the Forest Service of Parnitha.